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Rímska ríša - reálie

The Census

Every five years, each male Roman citizen had to register in Rome for the census. In this he had to declare his family, wife, children, slaves and riches. Should he fail to do this, his possessions would be confiscated and he would be sold into slavery. But registration meant freedom. A master wishing to free his slave needed only to enter him in the censor's list as a citizen (manumissio censu).Throughout the entire republican era, registration in the census was the only way that a Roman could ensure that his identity and status as a citizen were recognized. Fathers registered their sons, employers their freedmen. Primarily the census served to count the number of citizens and to assess the potential military strength and future tax revenue.
But the census performed a highly sym-bolical function. To the Romans the census made them more than a mere crowd, or barbarian rabble. It made them a populus, a people, capable of collective action. To the Roman the census was one of the foundation stones of their civilization.
With the census itself being of such importance, the job of compiling the lists was not simply left to anonymous scribes. It was overseen by two censors. These were incorruptible and noble-blooded men of substance who were appointed for their proven integrity and authority. It was their role to scrutinize each man, carefully evaluating his riches and his rank and pla-cing him in his rightful place within the civic hierarchy of Rome. In within the lower within s of Roman society, little was taken into account but their material belongings. However, for the citizens of high position in the hierarchy were subjected to the most penetrating gaze of the censor.

The City of Rome

Had it originally started as a small settlement on the Palatine Hill it had grown into the greatest city of the ancient world.
The Forum
In the earliest days of Rome the Forum was an uninhabited swamp, but soon the marshy plain at the bottom of the Palatine Hill was drained and the first paved streets, most of all the Via Sacra, were built. The Via Sacra, the oldest Roman street, was to remain most important street at the very heart of the city.
From these early beginnings the Forum changed several times, but it always remained the center of Roman life. In the early days political life was restricted to the comitium the northern corner of the Forum whilst the rest of the open square would be occupied by the market. In the later days of the republic the shops and the market were largely moved to make way for a greater public meeting space, as well as for Caesar's Forum. Caesar built his new Forum on one side of the Via Sacra and the Basilica Julia on the other.
Generally it was Caesar's contribution which initiated the Forum's greatest splendour. Every emperor in turn set out to add to the architectural glory of Rome's centre. With the growth of the empire and the increase in Rome's population the old Forum became to small to cope with the sheer weight of numbers. In time other fora were added, the Forum of Caesar, of Augustus, of Vespasian, of Nerva and that of Trajan.
With the growth of the Forum the old market had been forced to go elsewhere. With the Forum being the centre of Roman life the shops obviously clung to as closely as they could. The Via Sacra itself had shops, but so did the streets leading out of the Forum, foremost the vicus iugarius, the vicus tuscus and the argiletum. The vicus tuscus is said to have been the host of many spice shops. The argiletum was host to many bookshops and shoe shops.
To the east lay the poor man's market of Rome in the quarter of the subura, selling foods more suited to those with limited money, like simple vegetables and chickens. To the south of the Forum lay the velabrum, (the Velabrum refers to the low valley between the Palatine and Capitoline hills ), the general market, the forum boarium and the forum cuppedinis, the market for luxury goods. These were huge markets, feeding the greatest city of the world. The wealthy Romans might go shopping near the saeptia in the Campus Martius where the luxury shops could be found, selling amongst other things the most expensive slaves in Rome.

The Subura

But the wealthy would stay well clear of the district east of the Forum known as the subura. This was the poorer part of Rome, not merely housing the less fortunate, but also the many prostitutes of the city. The narrow alleys were notoriously dangerous to any stranger, with many criminals waiting to rob the purse of a hapless stranger. This is not to say that the subura was dangerous to all. There was indeed some distinguished patricians living there. Julius Caesar, for example, lived there, until he became pontifex maximus.

Sčítanie ľudu

Každých päť rokov všetci muži, rímskí občania, sa museli prihlásiť v Ríme k súpisu. Museli spísať členov rodiny, ženu, deti, otrokov a majetok. Ak by sa nezúčastnili súpisu, ich majetok by bol skonfiškovaný a boli by predaní do otroctva. Ale súpis znamenal slobodu. Pán, ktorý si želal oslobodiť svojho otroka, musel ho iba uviesť v listine cenzora, ako občana (manumissio censu). Po celú dobu éry republiky, registrácia bola jediná možnosť, že jeho identita a občianstvo boli uznané. Otcovia zapísali svojich synov, zamestnávatelia oslobodených otrokov. Pôvodne, sčítanie slúžilo na zistenie počtu občanov a pre určenie vojenskej sily ako aj pre budúce príjmy z daní.

Sčítanie malo aj značnú symbolickú funkciu. Pre rimanov sčítanie ľudu znamenalo, že sú viac, ako iba púhy dav alebo barbarská chátra. Znamenalo to, že sú ľud (populus), schopní kolektívných akcii. Pre rimanov sčítanie ľudu bolo jedným zo základných kameňov ich civilizácie.

Sčítanie bolo veľmi dôležité a preto spracovávanie sčítacích hárkov nebolo pone-chávané anonymným pisárom. Sčítanie bolo pod dohľadom dvoch cenzorov. Títo boli neúplatní a urodzení majetní muži, ktorí boli menovaní pre ich preukázanú bezúhonnosť a autoritu. Ich úlohou bolo dôkladne skúmať každého muža, jeho majetok, pozíciu a uložiť ho na správne miesto v občianskej hierarchii Ríma. U príslušníkov nižších tried rímských občanov sa nič iné nebralo v úvahu, iba ich materiálne statky. Ale čo sa týka vyššie postavených občanov, tí boli podrobení dôkladnému skúmaniu cenzora.

Rím

Na počiatku to bola malá osada na kopci Palatína, ktorá sa stala najväčším mestom staroveku.
Fórum
Na počiatku založenia mesta, Fórum bola neobývateľná bažina, ale čoskoro bola bažinatá rovina na úpätí kopca Palatína vysušená a boli vybudované prvé vydláždené cesty, ako napr. Via Sacra. Via Sacra, najstaršia rímska cesta bola najdôležitejšiou cestou v samotnom srdci mesta.

Forum sa zmenilo mnoho krát, ale vždy zostalo centrom rímskeho života. V počiatkoch, politický život bol obmedzený na severnú časť Fora, kým na ostatnej časti bol trh. V neskorších časoch republiky obchody a trh boli väčšinou premiestnené, aby sa zväčšil priestor pre verejné zhromaždenia, a tiež tu bolo umiestnené Cézarovo Fórum. Cézar vybudoval svoje nové Forum z jednej strany u Via Sacra. Basilica Júla bola vybudovaná na druhej strane.


Bol to práve Cézar, ktorý mal zásluhu na najväčšej nádhere Fóra. Cisári jeden po druhom sa zaslúžili o architektonickú nádheru centra Ríma. S rozširovaním impéria a so vzrastom obyvateľov Ríma staré Fórum už nestačilo na pojatie tak veľkého počtu rimanov. Postupne boli pridávané iné fóra ako napr. Fórum Cézara, Fórum Augusta, Fórum Vespaziána, Nerva a Trajána.

S rozširovaním Fóra staré trhovisko bolo nutné presťahovať na iné mesto. Fórum bolo centrom života rimanov, obchody tu priliehali k sebe tak tesne, ako sa len dalo. Na samotnej Via Sacra boli obchody, a tiež boli obchody na uliciach, ktoré smerovali od Fóra, najmä Vicus Iugarius, Vicus Tuscus a Argiletum. Na Vicus Tuscus bolo množstvo obchodov s korením. Na Argiletum-e bolo mnoho knihkupectiev a obcho-dov s topánkami.
Smerom na východ bol trh pre chudobných subura, kde sa predával tovar ktorý bol vhodnejší pre chudobnejších občanov, ako napr. zelenina a kurčatá. Na juh od Fóra bolo Velabrium (Velabrium bolo nízko položené údolie, medzi kopcom Palatina a Capitolia) hlavné trhovisko, Forum boarium a Forum cuppedinis - trh s luxusným tovarom. Boli to obrovské trhy, zásobujúce najväčšie mesto sveta. Bohatí rimania mohli chodiť nakupovať do Campus Martinus-u, kde bol luxusný tovar, medzi inými aj najdrahší otroci v Ríme.

Subura

Ale bohatí sa zdržiavali z dosahu štvrte východne od Fóra, známej ako Subura. Bola to chudobjejšia časť Ríma, ktorá poskytovala prístrešie nielen tým ktorí mali menej šťastia, ale aj mnohým prostitútkam v meste. Úzke uličky boli vychýrene nebezpečné, plné kriminálníkov, ktorí len čakali na príchod nešťastného cudzinca, aby ho okradli o peňaženku. Nemôžeme však povedať, že Subura bola nebezpečná pre všetkých. Boli tu aj významní patricíjovia ktorí tu žili. Napríkla Julius Cezar tu žil až kým sa nestal pontifex maximus.
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Zdroje
  1. http://www.roman-empire.net/society/society.html
  2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b021n60p/features/women-and-power
  3. http://www.mitchellteachers.org/WorldHistory/AncientRome/DailyLifeinAncientRome.htm
  4. http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/Ancient_Roman_Laws.htm#The Senate
  5. http://roman-empire.net/
  6. http://www.forumromanum.org/life/johnston_2.html
  7. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_entertainment.htm
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