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Family

Family had had a very solid social position since the beginnings of Rome. The Roman familia was organised as a patriarchy - it means that the whole authority rested in fathers hands. The usual family consisted of: father, mother, single daughters and those, who were married but still lived with their parents and siblings, unmarried and married sons with their wives and children, and slaves. Fathers authority ranged over all members of family. It is interesting that the son, even if he was married was unable to have own estate. He couldn´t inherit and own till the time when the father died. In relation to the slaves pater´s authority was absolute: he could sell, kill, leave or set them free.
There were two sorts of marriage in Rome: in manum, when a woman wasn´t incident to pater´s authority and depends only on her husband, and sine conventione in manum - women was still subject to her father, lived with her parents and siblings. The age border needed to contract marriage was very low, girls had to be just 12 and boys 14.
During the engagement ceremony, which took place before the wedding, a groom handed a coin or an iron ring to his future wife. The marriage ceremony was usually the same. In witnesses´ presence groom and bride gave hands to each other, and assented to marriage, then gods were asked for blessing. When the first star appeared on the sky, bride left the feast and made for her new house. After her husband, who was waiting on the doorstep, had given water and fire to her, she had to say famous words: Ubi tu Gaius, ibi ego Gaia.
The births of the children were the most important events in family´s life. After a child had been born, it was brought and put in front of the father. If he picked it up, it symbolised that he had found it legitimate. A child was named when it was 10 days old. At first Roman names consisted of 2 parts, then, in the times of the Republic and later, of 3: name, kind of surname and "alias".


Divorce and Emancipation

When we think of divorce, emancipation, and adoption, we usually think in terms of ending relationships between families. Rome was different. Inter-familial alliances were essential for garnering the support needed for political ends. Divorces could be granted so that partners could remarry into other families to establish new connections, but the family connections established via first marriages need not be broken. Emancipated sons were still entitled to shares of paternal estates.

Rozvod a emancipácia

Keď hovoríme o rozvode, emancipácii a adopcii, obyčajne máme na mysli ukončenie rodinných vzťahov medzi rodinami. Rím bol iný. Spojenectvo medzi rodinami bolo dôležité pre získávanie podpory pre dosiahnutie politických cieľov. Rozvod bol možný a partneri sa mohli znovu oženiť (vydať) a vytvoriť nové príbuzenstvo, ale príbuzenske vzťahy, vzniklé pri prvom manželstve nemuseli byť prerušené. Zrovnoprávnení synovia mali stále právo na podiel otcovho majetku.

Familia vs. Domus

In legal terms, familia included all those under the power of the pater familias; sometimes it meant only the slaves. The pater familias was usually the oldest male. His heirs were under h is power, as were the slaves, but not necessarily his wife. The mother/wife could be included in the familia, although the term usually used for this unit was domus, which we translate as 'home'.

Rodina a domov

Podľa práva, do rodiny patrili všetci, ktorí podliehali autorite "pater familias", ktorý bol obvykle najstarší muž. Jeho dedičia podliehali jemu ako aj otroci ale nie nevyhnutne jeho žena. Matka (alebo manželka) mohli byť zahrnuté do rodiny, ale skôr sa používalo slovo "domus", ktoré prekladáme ako domov.

Rodina

Rodina mala velmi solidné sociálne postavenie už od založenia Ríma. Rímska rodina bola organizovaná ako patriarchálna, to znamená že všetká autorita patrila otcovi. Rodina obvykle pozostávala z otca, matky, slobodných dcér a dcér ktoré boly vydaté, ale žily u svojich rodičov. Do rodiny patrili aj súrodenci, slobodní ako aj ženatí synovia s ich ženami, deťmi a otrokmi. Autorita otca platila pre všetkých členov rodiny. Je zaujímavé že syn, aj keď bol už ženatý nemohol vlastniť majetok. Zdediť majetok mohol len po otcovej smrti. Čo sa týka otrokov, otcova autorita bola neobmedzená mohol ich predať zabiť ale aj oslobodiť
V Ríme existovali dva druhy manželstiev "in manum" keď žena nezávisela od otcovej autority ale len od manželovej a "sine conventione in manum" (bez manželskej moci), t.j. žena stále podliehala otcovi, žila u svojich rodičov a súrodencov. Veková hranica pre uskutočnenie sobáša bola veľmi nízka, u dievčat od 12 a chlapci od 14 rokov.
Pred svadbou boli zásnuby, počas ktorých ženich položil mincu alebo železný prsteň na hlavu svojej budúcej manželky. Svadobný obrad bol obvykle rovnaký. Za prítomnosti svedkov ženich a nevesta si podali ruky a súhlasili so svadbou. Potom prosili bohov o požehnanie. Keď sa objavili prvé hviezdy na oblohe, nevesta odišla z hostiny do svojho nového domova. Keď jej manžel, ktorý čakal pred dverami podal žene vodu a fakľu, žena povedala tieto slávne slová: "Kde si ty, Gaius, tam som já Gaia.
Narodenie detí bolo najdôležitejšiou udalosťou v živote rodiny. Keď sa dieťa narodilo, vzali ho a položili pred otca. Ak dieťa zodvihol, to znamenalo, že ho považoval za legitimné. Dieťa dostalo meno po 10 dňoch. Zo začiatku Ríma rímske mená pozostávali z dvoch mien, neskôr, počnúc od republiky z 3 mien: mena, priezviska a druhého mena.



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Klára Mrázová